Manufacturing muscle: an overview of the history and legal aspects of doping in sport
by by Curtis A. Fogel1
Associate Professor of Criminology, Lakehead University Orillia (Ontario, Canada)
Abstract: This paper traces the origins and development of doping in sport, as well as the policies and procedures that have been used- with limited success- in eliminating sports doping. Critical attention is given to the various problems of doping control policies and procedures, such as high costs, ineffective tests, procedural errors, privacy violations, infringement on economic freedoms, and a failure to consider culpability, particularly in instances of inadvertent drug use without performance-enhancing benefits, e.g. marijuana use. Serious doubts can be raised about the fairness and effectiveness of current doping control policies and strategies. It is argued that an effective strategy for the prevention of doping in sport should rest on harm reduction principles of educating athletes about the potential harms of drug use, teaching safe alternatives to achieving their athletic goals to reduce demand, and targeting traffickers of prohibited substances rather than restricting the rights and freedoms of athletes with ineffective results.
Keywords: Doping; World Anti-Doping Agency; Doping Control Policy; Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Table of Contents: 1. Introduction; – 2. The Origins and Development of Doping; – 3. Doping Control Policies and Procedures; – 4. Legal Challenges to Doping Control Policies and Procedures; – 5. Conclusion.
Lealtà sportiva. Etica e diritto
di Francesca Valenti
Ricercatore di Diritto Privato nell’Università degli Studi di Palermo.
Sommario: 1. Fair play, il modo vincente. – 2. La lealtà sportiva: nozione. - 3. La lealtà sportiva: ambito soggettivo. - 4. La lealtà sportiva tra ordinamento sportivo e ordinamento statale. Cenni sul rapporto tra ordinamenti.
Profili critici e comparatistici dei sistemi salariali nello sport professionistico: due casi a confronto
di Francesco Trafficante
Dottore Magistrale in Giurisprudenza, Università degli studi di Palermo.
Sommario: Introduzione; – 1. Breve inquadramento normativo: l’importanza della L. 91/1981; – 2. Il sistema salariale nella Lega Serie A: accordo collettivo LNPA – AIC; – 2.1. Le parti sociali dell’accordo collettivo; – 2.2. Il trattamento economico dei calciatori; – 3. L’esperienza nord-americana: le leghe professionistiche statunitensi; – 4. Il sistema di Salary Cap e la sua introduzione; – 5. La disciplina del Salary Cap della NBA: il Collective Bargaining Agreement; – 5.1. Le parti del CBA; – 5.2. La disciplina del Salary Cap; – 6. I due sistemi a confronto: Salary Cap tra competitive balance ed implicazioni Antitrust; – 6.1. Brevi cenni all’Antitrust Law; – 6.1.1. Antitrust Law nel contesto sportivo USA; – 6.1.2. Nonstatutory Labor Exemption; – 6.2. La disciplina della concorrenza in ambito UEFA; – 6.3. (Segue): Il caso Meca/Medina ed il Wouters test; – 6.3.1. Gli “obiettivi legittimi”: incertezza dei risultati e stabilità finanziaria; – 7. Ipotesi e tentativi di riforma del sistema sportivo italiano ed europeo; – 7.1. L’indagine conoscitiva dell’AGCM ed il “tetto salariale” in Lega Serie B; – 7.2. Il Fair Play Finanziario UEFA; – 8. Il caso Albany: la specificità della contrattazione collettiva; – 9. Conclusioni. Una prospettiva de iure condendo: accordo collettivo UEFA?
Research Note: A regression that probably never should have been performed – the case of Norwegian top-league football attendance
Kjetil K. Haugen1, Arild Hervik and Hallgeir Gammelsæter
Faculty of Economics, Informatics and Social Sciences Molde University College, Specialized University in Logistics Molde, Norway
Abstract In this research note, we discuss a peculiar development in the Norwegian top football league - ‘Tippeliagen’. Since 2007, a significant drop in attendance numbers has been observed, and we investigate possible causes through regression analysis. Our main findings indicate that we can explain the complete attendance figures from 1993 to 2013 by a surprisingly simple regression model, including only (binary) new stadium variables. In addition, we estimate the duration of stadium attendance effects that turns out to be 5 years in Norway. In latter parts of the note, we discuss the sense in this model and conclude that a ’game-theoretic’ signaling model may prove worthwhile as an underlying explanatory model.
Keywords: Demand, Regression Analysis, Football Attendance, ‘Tippeligaen’ JEL classification: C22, D12, Z10
Moving towards Tokyo 2020: sport as a vehicle of social inclusion
by Veronica Lo Presti
Dottore in Management dello sport e delle attività motorie, Università degli studi di Palermo; M.S. in International Sport Management (2013), SUNY Cortland, U.S.A.
The article aims to outline the universal design model in sport extending its effect to inclusivity in the broader society. The analysis departs from data on the vulnerable population that is often at the border of society to take into account Japanese context. Then, considering that Japan will host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020, the study will look at the experiences of the previous hosting cities and at the challenges that those cities had to meet. In this regard, the study individuates in the concept of Universal Design that promotes social inclusion of others, of the environment, and of diversity – a model that encourages dialogues and relationships among the diverse populations, private organizations, and government. This model of Universal Design in Sport not only would help Japan avoid having the same issues that other countries had in organizing their Games, but would also, on the basis the cultural values such as Omotenashi, promote inclusivity beyond sports. The amelioration of relationships among diverse populations that will derive from the social integration obtained through the adoption of the Universal Design model would also foster the transmission of the necessary knowledge for building a lasting legacy for future generations.
Keywords: social inclusion; sport; universal design; Tokyo 2020.
Table of Contents: 1. Introduction; – 2 Vulnerable population; – 3 Role of sport in society; – 3.1. The positive effect of sport; – 3.2. The struggle of vulnerable population to take part in sport; – 4 Previous Games experiences; –5. UD in sporting environments; – 6. Conclusions; – 7. References.