June 2014 - Volume 2 - Issue 1
An emerging social configuration: the “sports-media-sponsors triangle”
by Stefano Martelli
Index: 1. Introduction; – 2. Theoretical insights about an emerging social configuration: the ‘Sms triangle’; – 2.1. Sports, media, and sponsors: an alliance going strong; – 2.2. From sports spectators to sports audiences; – 2.3. The fuelling nucleus of the ‘Sms triangle’: the sport audiences; – 2.4. The scientific study of a national sporting audience: issues and relevance); – 3. The Italian TV audiences of the FIFA world Cups (2002-2010): from theory to empirical findings; – 3.1. Materials and methods; – 3.2. Research hypothesis; – 3.3. The FIFA World Cups 2002-2010 and the TV viewers: some trends in Italian audience choices; – 3.4. Is televised football still a “male preserve”? A relevant exception; – 4. Italian sport subcultures and TV viewers profile: some findings from a long-term research project (2000-2010); – 4.1. A profile of the Italian TV viewers of the FIFA World Cups; – 4.2. The Winter Olympic Games 2002-2010, viewed from Italian living-rooms; – 4.3. The Italian TV audiences of the Winter Paralympic Games: some observations; – 5. Conclusions. References.
UEFA financial fair play: the curse of regulation
Holger Preuss1, Kjetil K. Haugen2, Mathias Schubert3
Abstract This paper applies simple game theory in order to analyze the UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP) policy, which was fully implemented in the 2013/14 season. By involving budget constraints put on clubs, FFP may lead to unintended or even adverse effects as indicated by some of the obtained results. In particular, the analysis shows that due to being in the situation of a Prisoner’s Dilemma, the clubs have a strong incentive to bypass the new regulations, what results in additional costs both for clubs to hide and UEFA to detect deviant behavior. As these costs might deter small clubs from trying to cheat, this consequently must have negative consequences on the level of competitive balance within a league. However, a positive outcome of FFP might be that clubs become more independent from benefactors or sugar daddies.
Keywords: sports economics; game theory; budget constraints; benefactor owners
JEL classification: L83, D01, C72
Table of contents: 1. Introduction; - 2. Literature review; - 2.1. The over-investment in European club football; - 2.2. The Financial Fair Play Concept in literature; - 3. The game models; - 4. Financial fair play effects – cloned teams; - 4.1. Playing by the rules; - 4.2. Financial acrobatics; - 5. Financial fair play effects – un-cloned teams; - 6. Conclusion and suggestions for further research.
L’atto politico nel prisma della Corte Costituzionale
Sommario: 1. Premessa; – 2. Il caso. Il potere di nomina degli assessori regionali e il principio di equilibrata presenza uomo-donna nelle istituzioni politiche; – 3. L’atto politico nella valutazione della Corte costituzionale; – 4. I limiti dell’uso giurisprudenziale dell’atto politico e la sua svalutazione post costituzionale; – 5. Potere politico e Stato di diritto; – 6. La questione di giurisdizione e la portata precettiva dei principi e diritti espressi negli statuti regionali.
The use of protein supplementation among fitness center attendees. The protein project
Preliminary insights on the mental representation of the body in italians
Franco Viviani1,2 & Alessandra Locati2
In order to start a data collection on body image (BI) in Italians involved in different sporting disciplines (on the basis of the criteria sex, age and level of performance), a reference data collection was undertaken in a sample of both sexes and differently aged Italians. BI was assessed on 371 subjects using a figurine test, a body part satisfaction scale, and a projective test. Results show that, in the whole sample, subjects desire a thinner figure with respect of their own, and that a substantial conformity between the figure they desired for themselves and the one believed to be liked by the other gender exists. Women, in general, imagine that males prefer slimmer women than they are; while males think that women prefer a more muscular male. Source of dissatisfaction were mostly weight, abdomen, legs and muscular tone, while those of greater satisfaction were eyes, mouth, ears, and chin. In both sexes the body ideal is maintained with the increase of age, and not many differences exist regarding the body parts, but they occur in the different age-classes. Age and gender differences were found in the projective test, mostly due to the different introjection of the sexual aspect. The body mental representation found in the sample appears to be strongly conditioned by age and gender, and also by experience and the inner world, confirming the multidimensional of the BI construct.
Keywords:Body image, body dissatisfaction, athletes, Italians.
Physical activity and glycemic control in a cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a pilot study
Giorgia Lamacchia1, Daniele Castelli1, Maria Alessandra Montalto1, Tatiana Moro2, Esamuela Mancuso1, Maria Gateva3, Antonino Patti1, Antonio Palma1
BACKGROUND: Even today physical activity is not considered as a real treatment for diabetes but the literature suggests that regular physical activity is of great importance in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Moreover a regular physical activity has been associated with weight control, improved blood lipid profile, reduced cardiovascular risk and improved sense of well being. Several studies have suggested that elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); the objective of the present pilot was to evaluate the relationship between HBA1C levels and physical activity.
METHODS: The subjects were recruited during regularly scheduled clinic visits. Seventeen youths (12 girls and 5 boys) with type 1 diabetes and disease duration of at least 24 months and were recruited from a university-based outpatient diabetes specialty clinic, without any other known disease. We required the dosage HBA1C to patients that, subsequently, came to their regular outpatient visit having the HBA1C test. Moreover, we administered a short questionnaire in order to evaluate the total physical activity time carried out in one week.
RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were enrolled in this study (age: 14,43 ± 2,83 yrs; weight: 58,79 ± 15,68 kg; height: 159,91 ± 12,99 cm; BMI: 22,72 ± 4,78). Through the Pearson correlation index, the data analysis demonstrated that HBA1C levels (9.98 ± 2.18 %) exhibited a significant reverse correlation (r = - 60) with total physical activity time carried in one week (432, 05 ± 214,58 min).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that regular exercise can improve long-term glucose control, according to HBA1C levels and ultimately, improve metabolic control in subjects with type-1 diabetes. If confirmed by future studies, our findings propose physical activity as a accompanying treatment for type 1 diabetes. Larger numbers are necessary to confirm these hypothesis but these results are very encouraging.
Keywords: Physical activity, Adolescents, Glycated hemoglobin, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Assessment of autonomic function as marker of training status: the role of heart rate recovery after exercise
Angelo Cataldo1, Dario Cerasola1, Daniele Zangla1, Giuseppe Russo1, Fatma Nese Sahin2, Marcello Traina1
Heart rate recovery (HRR) is the rate at which the heart rate returns to baseline after a period of exercise. HRR is a marker of autonomic function and a predictor of cardiovascular fitness in healthy subjects and in those with cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, HRR has been proposed as a marker of training status in athletes. Our aim was to perform a review of studies that evaluated HRR after exercise in trained and untrained healthy subjects and assessed its relationship with training status. Several studies suggest that the assessing of HRR after exercise may be useful to distinguish trained from untrained individuals and to establish an athlete’s state of training. However, standardization of measuring is required to compare between individuals.
Keywords: Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Cardiovascular fitness