Kjetil K. Haugen* and Knut P. Heen**
*Faculty of Logistics Molde University College, Specialized University in Logistics Molde, Norway.
**Faculty of Business Administration and Social Sciences Molde University College, Specialized University in Logistics Molde, Norway
This paper presents a relatively comprehensive study of how Uncertainty of Outcome has developed over time in major European football leagues. The findings are clear; excitement in football is degrading, closing up on levels that many should find unacceptable. The paper also discusses and proposes some simple means for reversing this development.
Key words: Uncertainty of outcome, Regression analysis, Time series analysis, ARIMA modelling, Competitive balance, Football (soccer).